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INFORM Epidemic Risk Index: Person-to-Person (P2P) transmission index

For communities, inadequate shelter and overcrowding are major factors in the transmission of diseases with epidemic potential such as acute respiratory infections, meningitis, typhus, cholera, scabies, etc. Outbreaks of disease are more frequent and more severe when the population density is high. Other public structures such as health facilities not only represent a concentrated area of patients but also a concentrated area of germs. In an emergency, the number of hospital-associated infections will typically rise. Decreasing overcrowding by providing extra facilities and a proper organization of the sites or services in health-care facilities is a priority. As a component of the INFORM Epidemic Risk Index, this Person-to-Person (P2P) transmission index captures the countries' exposure to risk of P2P disease transmission. The risk score ranges from 0-10, where 10 is the highest risk.

RCoE Action:

Poljanšek, K., Marin-Ferrer, M., Vernaccini, L., Messina, L., Incorporating epidemics risk in the INFORM Hazard-dependent Global Risk Index, EUR 29603 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2018, ISBN 978-92-79-98669-7, doi:10.2760/990429, JRC114652


The INFORM Epidemic Risk Index is a composite index, which is a simplified view of reality. Therefore, it should be used in conjunction with other sources of information. Methodology and detailed discussion of limitations are available at:

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